Low Dissolved Oxygen (LODO) Brewing

In the world of , one of the key factors for a successful fermentation process is the level of dissolved oxygen in the wort. Dissolved oxygen refers to the amount of oxygen molecules that are present in the liquid, and it plays a crucial role in the growth and activity of during fermentation.

The German Brewing Forum (GBF) has introduced a concept called Low Dissolved Oxygen (LODO) brewing, which aims to minimize the amount of oxygen that comes into contact with the wort throughout the brewing process. This technique has gained popularity among homebrewers for its ability to enhance the quality and stability of the final .

To achieve LODO brewing, one of the primary steps involves oxygenation of the wort. This is where a 0.5 micron stone comes into play. Unlike larger stones, the smaller bubbles produced by a 0.5 micron stone provide a significantly larger surface area for oxygen diffusion. As a result, the wort can absorb oxygen at a faster rate.

Pure oxygen is used for oxygenation in LODO brewing, and the process takes only 60-120 seconds with a 0.5 micron stone. This allows for quick and efficient oxygenation, ensuring that the desired oxygen levels are achieved. Ideally, dissolved oxygen levels in the wort should be around 8-12 parts per million (PPM) for a successful fermentation.

It is important to note that there is a range for optimal dissolved oxygen levels. While 5 PPM is considered the minimum for yeast growth, exceeding 17 PPM can be detrimental to the fermentation process. When oxygen levels are too high, it can be toxic to the yeast or lead to oxidation and flavor instability in the finished beer.

LODO brewing aims to strike the right balance, ensuring that enough oxygen is present for yeast growth and activity while minimizing the risk of oxidation. By carefully controlling the oxygenation process, brewers can achieve consistent and high-quality results.

In addition to oxygenation, LODO brewing also involves other practices to minimize oxygen exposure throughout the brewing process. These may include purging equipment with an inert gas, using closed transfer methods, and minimizing splashing and agitation during transfers.

The benefits of LODO brewing are numerous. By reducing oxygen exposure, brewers can achieve improved flavor stability, enhanced aroma, and increased shelf life for their beers. LODO brewing is particularly beneficial for styles that are highly susceptible to oxidation, such as hop-forward beers or delicate lagers.

LODO brewing, as introduced by the German Brewing Forum, offers homebrewers a technique to improve the fermentation process by minimizing oxygen exposure. By employing a 0.5 micron stone for oxygenation and implementing other oxygen-reducing practices, brewers can achieve optimal dissolved oxygen levels and produce high-quality, stable beers. Whether you're a seasoned homebrewer or just starting out, exploring LODO brewing techniques can take your brews to the next level.

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What Is Lodo Brewing?

Lodo brewing, short for Low Dissolved Oxygen brewing, is a brewing technique developed by the German Brewing Forum (GBF). It is designed to minimize the exposure of beer to oxygen during various stages of the brewing process. By reducing the amount of oxygen present, Lodo brewing aims to improve the quality and stability of the final product.

Here are the key aspects of Lodo brewing:

1. Oxygen Management: Lodo brewing places great emphasis on preventing oxygen from coming into contact with the beer. Oxygen can have detrimental effects on the flavor, aroma, and overall stability of the beer. Brewers take extra precautions to minimize oxygen exposure during mashing, lautering, boiling, cooling, fermentation, and packaging.

2. Closed Systems: Lodo brewers utilize closed systems whenever possible to limit oxygen ingress. This includes using closed transfer methods, such as pressure transfers, to move the beer between vessels without exposure to the air. Closed fermentation systems, like stainless steel conical fermenters with airlocks, are also commonly employed.

3. Purging and Sparging: Purging involves replacing the air in equipment, such as fermentation vessels or kegs, with an inert gas like carbon dioxide. This helps to remove oxygen and create a protective atmosphere. Sparging, on the other hand, is a technique used during mashing and lautering to rinse the grains and prevent oxygen pickup.

4. Oxygen Scavengers: Lodo brewers often use additives or ingredients that act as oxygen scavengers. These compounds help to mop up any oxygen that may still be present in the beer, reducing the likelihood of oxidation during storage or aging. Common oxygen scavengers include ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and sulfite compounds.

5. Cold-Side Aeration: Lodo brewing also focuses on minimizing oxygen pickup during cooling and packaging. Cold-side aeration, the introduction of oxygen during these stages, is avoided as much as possible. Special care is taken when transferring the beer to bottles or kegs, ensuring minimal exposure to oxygen.

By implementing these practices, Lodo brewing aims to produce beers with improved flavor stability, reduced off-flavors, and extended shelf life. It is particularly beneficial for styles that are prone to oxidation, such as hop-forward beers and delicate lagers.

Lodo brewing is a technique that employs careful oxygen management throughout the brewing process to minimize oxygen exposure and improve the overall quality of the beer.


Low Dissolved Oxygen (LODO) brewing is a technique that focuses on minimizing the amount of oxygen exposure during the brewing process. By using a 0.5 micron stone and pure oxygen, brewers can ensure a faster and more efficient absorption of oxygen into the wort, resulting in dissolved oxygen levels of around 8-12 PPM.

It is important to note that dissolved oxygen levels below 5 PPM may hinder yeast growth and fermentation, while levels exceeding 17 PPM can lead to detrimental effects such as yeast toxicity, oxidation, and flavor instability in the final beer.

The use of LODO brewing techniques allows brewers to have better control over the oxygen levels in their wort, ensuring optimal conditions for yeast growth and fermentation. By minimizing oxygen exposure, brewers can produce beers with improved flavor stability and reduced off-flavors caused by oxidation.

LODO brewing offers a way for homebrewers to produce high-quality beers with enhanced flavor profiles and increased shelf life. By understanding the importance of dissolved oxygen levels and implementing LODO techniques, brewers can elevate their brewing process and create exceptional beers.

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Thomas Ashford

Thomas Ashford is a highly educated brewer with years of experience in the industry. He has a Bachelor Degree in Chemistry and a Master Degree in Brewing Science. He is also BJCP Certified Beer Judge. Tom has worked hard to become one of the most experienced brewers in the industry. He has experience monitoring brewhouse and cellaring operations, coordinating brewhouse projects, and optimizing brewery operations for maximum efficiency. He is also familiar mixology and an experienced sommelier. Tom is an expert organizer of beer festivals, wine tastings, and brewery tours.